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The most widely used form of Energy in the modern world is electricity. The production and distribution of electrical energy is one of the most important component of the modern day infrastructure. Electricity, along with water and sewer are considered the basic necessities of modern life.
The electric power industry provides the production and delivery of electric energy, often known as power, or electricity, in sufficient quantities to areas that need electricity through a grid connection. The grid distributes electrical energy to customers. Electric power is generated by central power stations or by distributed generation.
Electricity is used as the primary source of energy for many households and businesses. This need for electrical energy is not only prevalent in developed nations but the demand for this scarce resource is also being felt in developing nations. Demand for electricity is derived from the requirement for electricity in order to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, industrial machinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and commercial lighting, heating, cooking and industrial processes. Because of this aspect of the industry, it is viewed as a public utility as infrastructure.
Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory
Introduction to Electrical Power Systems
Power Plant Design Manual
AscenTrust Power Plant Design Manual
The electric power industry is commonly split up into four processes:
In many countries, electric power companies own the whole infrastructure from generating stations to transmission and distribution infrastructure. For this reason, electric power is viewed as a natural monopoly. The industry is generally heavily regulated, often with price controls and is frequently government-owned and operated.
The nature and state of market reform of electrical production and distribution often determines whether electric companies are able to be involved in just some of these processes without having to own the entire infrastructure.In more industrialized countries where electrical production and distribution is deregulated, end-users of electricity may opt for more costly green electricity.
About 2 billion people in the world lack access to commercial forms of energy including electricity and cook using traditional fuels. Lack of access to electricity affects mostly rural areas of developing countries. Electricity can meet a diversity of human energy needs compared to other forms of energy and access to reliable and affordable electricity in rural areas has the potential to improve the provision of social services such as health and education. Switching to electricity can also help avoid a significant amount of environmental, health burdens associated with traditional fuels. Where infrastructure such as roads, water supply systems and social services are available in rural areas, electrification can result in direct economic benefits. Potential benefits of electricity in rural areas include crop irrigation, agro-processing and preservation of farm produce.